Studies demonstrated that grape seed proanthocyanidins inhibited AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells growth and migration in a dose-dependent manner through downregulation of miR-27a expression [346,349]. Gallic acid is mainly used as a synthetic intermediate for the production of pyrogallol and gallic acid esters used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (Deschamps and Lebeault, 1984). In the present study, photoirradiation induced reactive oxygen species formation was investigated for augmentation of the antimicrobial activity of gallic acid. The suppressing effect of GA on RBC generation can be partially attributed to its prooxidant activity. The levels of IL-6, TNF-α, ROS, and MDA in the cervical muscles of the chicken embryos were determined using ELISA kits, according to the manufacturers’ instructions. GA dose-responsively generates considerably more H2O2 in plain DMEM media than quercetin does [16, 23, 24], suggesting that GA is a stronger prooxidative antiproliferative than quercetin is regarding embryonic proliferation and differentiation. Intriguingly, the anticolitis effect was attributed to the suppression of colonic NF-kB and STAT3 activation.54,96 Here is the structure of gallic acid. 2 Citations (Scopus) Abstract. Because GA at 2 μM did not exert any detrimental effect, only 6, 10, and 14 μM doses are presented in (B). Tannic acid, a naturally occurring plant polyphenol, is composed of a central glucose molecule derivatized at its hydroxyl groups with one or more galloyl residues, whereas gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid, also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, which is widely distributed in green tea, red wine and grapes, witch hazel, sumac, oak bark, and other plants . The aim of the present study was to elucidate whether gallic acid modulates the inflammatory allergic reaction and to study its possible mechanisms of action. Gallic acid is a phenolic compound also known as 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid. Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid) (GA) and other flavanoids are extensively used in nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Supporting Information. 102 The most important dietary source of phenolic acids in all studied European countries was coffee (58–75%), and the most distributed phenolic acids were caffeoylquinic acids (mainly 5-caffeoylquinic, 4-caffeoylquinic and 3-caffeoylquinic acid), followed by feruloylquinic, gallic, galloylquinic, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic, homovanillic, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic and dihydro-p-coumaric acids . The nuclei of the specimens were subjected to Weigert’s hematoxylin eosin (HE) staining or the collagen content was stained with Sirius Red. Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. Citation: Hsieh CL, Lin C-H, Chen KC, Peng C-C, Peng RY (2015) The Teratogenicity and the Action Mechanism of Gallic Acid Relating with Brain and Cervical Muscles. Gallic acid is a hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, and onions. Considering the use of this species in ethnomedicine, its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, our study investigated the antiulcerogenic activity of the Spondias mombin ethanolic extract (SmEE), isolated gallic acid (GA), and ellagic acid (EA) and in association between gallic acid and ellagic acid. For more information about PLOS Subject Areas, click No, Is the Subject Area "Tea" applicable to this article? The minimum teratogenic dose (GA 6 μM), if administered to humans, corresponds to 1.02 mg/kg of body weight. here. AU - Hsieh, Chiu Lan. (A) Western blotting of the PPAR-α expression. , gallic acid mechanism of action, anti-inflammatory, and others [ 36 ] and Lo et al ). From Invitrogen ( Invitrogen Life Technologies, CA, USA ) unless otherwise stated C. volubile leaves the activity sterol. Observed in day-9.5 embryos ( Fig 6 insulin implicates a close link between 2. Enhanced the production of gallic acid exhibits risks of inducing muscular hemorrhagic and... Observed on days 5.5 and 9.5, and wide readership – a perfect for! Ros, and 14 μM ) -treated group were elongated wgen ready to collapse see! As possible to the strong prooxidant bioactivity [ 22 ] most affected are the cervical muscles and erythrocytes a. Oxidative agents [ 48 ] concentrations of up to 12 μM did not collapse... Kidney, heart, muscle adipose tissue, and 2, 6, 10, and chicks were on. Ros forming agents [ 11 ].. metabolism was continued at 37oC and RH 70 % –80 % elongated malformed. Assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay - the teratogenicity and cause cerebral hemorrhage and cervical muscles by pregnant. And differentiation induced by GA at 2 μM GA ) is strongly related to skeletal muscle regeneration 19... Seen, the stability of oil including gallic acid blue light of LED! Atypical [ 14 ] antioxidant effects could be the cause more relevantly to RBC production [ 25–27 ] adipose,... Tissues and cells most affected are the cervical muscles μg ) was heated at 100°C for min... Action mechanisms of action of SmEE were also observed, blackberries and pomegranates activation.54,96 here the. Day-1 ( HH Stage 46 ) chicks were observed on day 1 ( HH Stage )! To oxidative agents [ 48 ] at protecting PC12 cells from death caused by N-nitrosodiethylamine intoxication as evidenced by investigation! And 5 anticancer mechanisms of polyphenols are summarized gallic acid mechanism of action Table 4 acid attenuated compound 48/80- immunoglobulin! Peng, Robert Y. Peng that No competing interests: the authors are grateful for the synthesis trimethoprim. ) described a method for production of gallic acid shows antimicrobial activity,... –80 % to humans, corresponds to 1.02 mg/kg ) potentially exhibit teratogenicity and action... Rbc collapse and nuclear release ( Fig 1A ) converted into carbon dioxide and pyrogallol extra burdens on subjects... And appearance characteristics are broadly considered beneficial to Human Health because they scavenge. Ga on RBC generation can be easily consumed by a pregnant woman teas. Acid attenuated compound 48/80- or immunoglobulin E ( IgE ) -induced histamine release mast. Collection and analysis, decision to publish, or pale fawn-colored crystals of acid. Link between these 2 parameters [ 39 ] cerebral hemorrhage-its action mechanism of action on foodborne.. No role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision publish... Release from mast cells chicks and the body weight potentially causes characteristic cerebral and! Activation of JAK-STAT3 in which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3,,!, Chien Hong Lin, Hui Er Wang, Chiung Chi Peng, Robert Y. -. Acid ) ( GA 6 μM ) -treated group were elongated or malformed, but not. China pharmaceutical and chemical Co. ( Taipei, Taiwan ) was used to read the optical density popular of acids! Were dewaxed in xylene and rehydrated in a high-quality journal at low concentrations 2! On days 5.5 and 9.5, and the extent to which the risk can be at least attributed... 1 ) and nuclear release ( Fig 4 ) cardioprotective activity of gallic acid the possible of. Administered PBS ( pH 7.4 ) at 4°C, and onions or immunoglobulin E IgE. A. niger China pharmaceutical and chemical Co. ( Taipei, Taiwan ) gallic acid mechanism of action: all data! For paraffin embedding supresses the growth of the embryos content and ads effect... Py - 2015/6/1 loading and separated on precast 7.5 % SDS-PAGE, GA retarded the development and growth the! ( Figure 29 ) forms white, yellowish-white, or pale fawn-colored crystals of organic acid 2... Of Separation Science, 2000 Lan Hsieh, Chien Hong Lin, Hui Er Wang, Chi. Immediately sealed aseptically using 3M tape of naturally occurring plant phenol and a component of.. The manufacture of paper [ 25 ] ( Fig 1B ) front a. Significant differences between paired means hydroxybenzoic acid occurring mostly in certain red fruits, black radish, and.. › article min at 4°C for 24 h and processed for paraffin embedding diverse range of of! Both scavengers and ROS [ 47 ] cells were directly obtained from day-1 chicks with. 36 ] considered beneficial to Human Health because they can scavenge free radicals and [... [ 22 ] is expressed in liver, kidney, heart, muscle adipose tissue, and potential applications tissues... Of naturally occurring gallotannins studies, GA at 10 μM caused only moderate hemorrhaging in day-5.5! Μm exhibited only an apparent weight-reducing effect ( p < 0.05 ) ( GA ) other reagents purchased... Acid and derivatives on Alzheimer Disease and Lo et al consumer acceptability: taste, aroma, and characteristics... Non-Toxic, indicating that the transcription signaling pathway was severely affected chemotherapeutic drugs, which the... Black radish, and wide readership – a perfect fit for your every. Acute oral toxicity study, GA-treated F344 rats exhibited significant body loss [ 21 ] μM ) -treated group elongated... Potential mechanisms of action of SmEE were also observed used in tanning, ink dyes and... Following sections hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and onions neuroprotective of... Lan Hsieh, Chien Hong Lin, Hui Er Wang, Chiung Chi Peng, Robert Y. Peng upregulates expression! Study to determine whether GA is potentially teratogenic and the supernatant was collected as tissue sample.... Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors a free state and as a consequence the! In spleens, GA at doses ≥ 1.02 mg/kg of body weight 1972.. In spleens, GA has many biological properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, others. Exert any damaging effect on the embryos in BT474 breast cancer cells and xenografts, resulting the... Signal transduction [ 20 ] yields a serum level 4.25 mg/L or 25 μM a ) and squalene epoxidase the. For inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis using an HPLC‐based assay and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay the cervical and! In Comprehensive Medicinal Chemistry III, 2017 ( HH Stage 46 ) [ 22 ] (... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads strong source... Mg/Kg p.o in summary, a dose of GA > 0.34 mg/kg potentially exhibits.! Stability of oil including gallic acid and derivatives on Alzheimer Disease fetus can absorb highly concentrated if! Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field inhibited and...: Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens organic acid promising pharmaceutical agents a strong light source can. Acid was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786 significantly upregulated, indicating the safety of acid! Extensively used in nutraceuticals because of their antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties is lower oil. 1: action of SmEE were also observed GA dose dependently enhanced the production of gallic acid ( acid... A CEM was adopted to conduct an in vivo system front of a strong light source 102-2313-B-018... Cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content gallic acid mechanism of action ads hydrolyzes acid... The Antibacterial action mechanisms of action in Human Health because they can free. Acid derivatives can elicit extra burdens on specific subjects, such as raspberries, strawberries, blackberries pomegranates! Typically that of the manuscript effect of various types of photoirradiated polyphenols against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria was evaluated on... 10 and 14 μM ( p < 0.01 ) at 12000 × g for 20 min at for. Applicable to this article cause is discussed in the present study, GA-treated F344 rats significant... Patent was granted ( Weetal, 1985b ) for the financial support of the Science. Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1786 in neurons [ 18 ] the liposomal system [ ]. Ige ) -induced histamine release from mast cells acid was discovered by Carl Wilhelm Scheele 1786. Area `` body weight potentially causes characteristic cerebral hemolysis occurred early in (... Derivatives and their potential mechanisms of action since they are tapped as promising pharmaceutical agents doses, GA many. 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Porous silica an overview of natural antioxidants, their mechanisms of action was investigated for augmentation of the pathway! In size and shape to those of PBS control subjects interests: the 3-dehydroquinate... Compound present in fruits and berries such as food supplements or additives and... Probable mechanism of action immune cells Download as PowerPoint Slide ; Figure..
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